There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.
Ink Dating Expert Witnesses
Many writers, particularly those who write well and freely, are from time to time making slight but persistent changes in their handwriting. These changes are usually few in number compared with all the characteristics of the writing and do not change the general style, but often are sufficient, with adequate material for comparison, to show conclusively that a writing was made before or after a certain definite time. An interval of five years or even less, under certain health or changed business conditions, may show a number of permanent and significant changes.
Many reports has been given in this regard by Anil Gupta Forensic Services. An entirely new approach was made in a case, where date of signature on a typed letter dt.
SDS is routinely involved in writing Ink and Paper analysis and has been Also this type of analysis can be used in paper document dating cases where.
Apart from the microscopic examination and the use of optical methods to examine various items exhibits that may reveal evidence about the document source or whether or not a nexus exits between various documents, there may be a need to chemically analyse the materials used in the document production. This may involve analysis of the substrate paper, film, etc. With these types of analyses the inorganic and organic components of the substances can be determined and the results can be compared to various data bases that can assist in determining the type and who manufactured the material used.
SDS is routinely involved in writing Ink and Paper analysis and has been involved in many cases where this evidence has been beneficial. Writing inks: The analysis of the writing inks used on a document can produce useful information such as; type of ink used and who manufactured that ink, how many different types of inks have been used, have ink entries on a document been altered, added or substituted, could certain entries be written contemporaneously or at different times and when could the document have been signed or written?
Non destructive techniques are used in the first instance and involve microscopic, variable wavelength light source illumination techniques Polilight etc. The use of different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum provides an examiner with a large number of different techniques to determine the optical properties and some of these techniques are used routinely to reveal, faded, erased and obliterated entries pencil and ink or used to examine damaged documents which have been burnt, water or solvent affected or even digested!
In situations where the inks have similar optical properties, and appear indistinguishable there will be a need to resort to further non destructive analysis microspectrophotometry etc. SDS has access to a Writing Ink Library of over writing ink samples and this library can be used to identify the manufacturer of the ink and provide information concerning the use of this ink by various writing ink manufacturers. Paper examination and analysis: A complete analysis of the substrate used to produce a document can be important aspect of an investigation into Extortion, Kidnapping, Terrorism, Counterfeiting and Product Tampering and Copyright issues.
Also this type of analysis can be used in paper document dating cases where changes in paper furnish formulation may determine whether or not a document could have been in existence at a particular time.
UK dating awards
IFS is Govt. Act, ; UNI. MSYS ; also Regd. Court to examine various Documents, Handwriting and Signatures. We regularly receives cases from court, police and government departments. We also accept cases from private, public and individual clients.
Date: 11 Nov, Date: 26 Apr, Kartar Singh held that age of the ink cannot be dete the trial Court the expert had stated that the determination of the.
Expert witnesses who are available to consult and testify regarding ink dating may be found here. The consultants found through this page may provide reports on forged checks, signatures, questioned documents, ink analysis, and forensic ink dating, as well as expert witness testimony on these and related issues. You may limit your search for Ink Dating expert witnesses to a specific area by selecting a state from the drop down box. Featured Experts.
Document examinations are provided in the following areas: handwriting, typewriter, photocopies, Global Forensic Services, LLC formerly Stewart Forensic Consultants, LLC is an independent laboratory and consulting firm providing investigation, forensic and litigation support to individuals, companies and firms. Our services include ink age, handwriting, Christopher S Palenik Microtrace.
Location: Illinois. Areas of Expertise: Microtrace has provided microanalytical services in support of legal matters for over 25 years. We specialize in non-routine cases foreign matter identification and sourcing, product contamination, product Emily J. Location: North Carolina.
Ink dating expert
Ink , fluid or paste of various colours, but usually black or dark blue, used for writing and printing. It is composed of a pigment or dye dissolved or dispersed in a liquid called the vehicle. Writing inks date from about bc and were used in ancient Egypt and China. They consisted of lampblack ground with a solution of glue or gums, molded into sticks, and allowed to dry.
Ink, fluid or paste of various colours, but usually black or dark blue, used for Writing inks date from about bc and were used in ancient Egypt and China.
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks. Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings.
Multiple inks can be chemically compared with each other to corroborate or refute whether the entries were created contemporaneously or produced over multiple periods of time. Forensic Analysis of Printers and Copiers. Ink analysis and dating can also be conducted on machine printed document such as inkjet ink and toner from photocopiers, laser printers, and facsimile machines. Forensic Paper Examination.
Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating.
We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to The best measure of admissibility is in the competence of the expert, and we at.
But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.
Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones. Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors. During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components.
When analysing the kinetics involved in its disappearance, the research group established a pattern that links the state of the ink with the time that has elapsed. After observing this natural evolution and once the base guideline had been established, the next challenge to be overcome was to check the viability of the method using spontaneously written documents whose exact age was known, such as diaries, laboratory logs and judicial evidence from judicial processes that had been closed.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
We have gone through your all photographs, comparisons, detection job and other hard work for identifying the real culprit is highly appreciable”. Toggle navigation. With reference to the above.
The ink library at the lab contains more than 15, samples of pen, marker and printer inks dating back to the s. The collection is the.
Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected.
The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS , is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating.
AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK – Anil Gupta Forensic Service
Foothill Boulevard. Provides investigation, forensic and litigation support to individuals, companies and firms. Our services include ink age, handwriting, questioned documents, crime scene evaluation, ink analysis, age determination, printer and toner analysis, authenticity, fraud investigations, fingerprints, review of expert witness findings, Daubert and cold case re-investigations.
Looking for the AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK Expert Your search ends here. An entirely new approach was made in a case, where date of.
Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic.
Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written. When conducting examinations, forensic document examiners must have known specimens to which they compare the material in question. These samples may come from any number of known sources, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine.
In cases involving handwriting, samples are usually divided into two types: requested writing specimens and collected writing specimens. Requested specimens are writings dictated by the investigator to the writer. These specimens are created under carefully controlled conditions, with the writer being closely monitored.
Ink dating experts
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Document dating based on correlation analysis manuscript samples were removed from forensic expert reports produced along the years ranging from
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